Smartphone Addiction, Children's Mental Health, and the Role of Parenting

Authors

  • Reza Fajar Amalia Magister Keperawatan, Fakultas Ilmu Keperawatan, Universitas Indonesia
  • Achir Yani Syuhaimie Hamid Departemen Keperawatan Jiwa, Fakultas Ilmu Keperawatan, Universitas Indonesia

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.32584/jikj.v3i2.588

Keywords:

children, mental health, preventive strategie, smartphone addiction

Abstract

Increased smartphone utilization by children will increase the risk of  addiction which consequently affecting the  physical and mental health status of  children. This impact requires an appropriate prevention strategies and involves the family or parents as important social support system for child's development. This study aim to identify systematically the effects of smartphone addiction on children, addiction prevention strategies, and formulation of guideline for parents in assisting their children when using smartphones. This study using systematic review by searching articles in electronic database (SpringerLink, ClinicalKey, SAGE Publication, Annual Reviews). The keywords used are "smartphone addiction" AND "mental health" AND "children" OR "child". The result of 13 relevant arcticles analysis revealed that the most common effects of smartphone addiction on mental health of children were anxiety, depression and behavioral disorders. Anxiety, depression and behavioral disorders have a two-way relationship with smartphone addiction. Authoritative parenting style can reduce the risk of smartphone addiction. Smartphone addiction requires a comprehensive prevention and intervention strategy. In addition, authoritative parenting style make the child into a person who has a character that will later influence attitudes, ways of thinking to avoid addictive behavior. 

References

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Alt, D., & Boniel-Nissim, M. (2018). Parent–Adolescent communication and problematic internet use: The mediating role of fear of missing out (FoMO). Journal of Family Issues, 39(13), 33913409. doi: 10.1177/0192513X18783493.

Bae, S. M. (2015). The relationships between perceived parenting style, learning motivation, friendship satisfaction, and the addictive use of smartphones with elementary school students of South Korea: Using multivariate latent growth modeling. School Psychology International, 36(5), 513–531. doi:10. 1177/0143034315604017.

Bottino, S.M.B., Bottino, C.M.C., Regina, C.G., Correia, A.V.L. & Ribeiro, W.S. (2015). Cyberbullying and adolescent mental health: Systematic review. Cad. Saúde Pública, 31(3): 463-475. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0102-311X000361 14.

Brooks, R. (2012). Student-parents and higher education: a cross-national comparison. Journal of Education Policy, 27 (3), 423439. https://doi.org/10.1080/02680939.2011. 613598.

Chen, L., Yan, Z., Tang, W., Yang, F., Xie, X., & He, J. (2016) Mobile phone addiction levels and negative emotions among Chinese young adults: The mediating role of interpersonal problems. Computers in Human Behavior, 34, 49-57. https://doi.org/10/1016/j.chb.2014.01.024

D’Arienzo, M. C., Boursier, V., & Griffiths, M. D. (2019). Addiction to Social Media and Attachment Styles: A Systematic Literature Review. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 17(4), 1094–1118. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-019-00082-5

Elhai, J. D., Dvorak, R. D., Levine, J. C. and Hall, B. J. (2016) ‘Problematic smartphone use: A conceptual overview and systematic review of relations with anxiety and depression psychopathology’, Journal of Affective Disorders. Elsevier.

Fenton, M. C., Aivadyan, C. and Hasin, D. (2013) ‘Epidemiology of Addiction’, in Miller, P. (ed.) Principles of Addiction, Comprehensive Addictive Behaviors and Disorders. First Edit. London: Elsevier Inc., pp. 23–40.

Goleman, D. (2014). Emotional Intelligence. Jakarta: Gramedia..

Gugliandolo, M. C., Costa, S., Kuss, D. J., Cuzzocrea, F., & Verrastro, V. (2019). Technological Addiction in Adolescents: the Interplay Between Parenting and Psychological Basic Needs. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-019-00156-4

Gunarsa, S. (2006). Psikologi Perkembangan Anak dan Dewasa. Jakarta: Gunung Mulia

Herman, K. M., Hopman, W. M., & Sabiston, C. M. (2015). Physical activity, screen time and self-rated health and mental health in Canadian adolescents. Preventive Medicine, 73, 112–116. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2015.01.030

Hinduja, S. & Patchin, J. W. (2010). Bullying, Cyberbullying, and Suicide. Archives of Suicide Research, 14(3), 206-221.

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Kemendikbud. 2016. Seri Pendidikan Orang Tua: Mendidik Anak di Era Digital. Jakarta : Kementrian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan.

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Kwon, M., Lee, J. Y., Won, W.Y., Park, J. W., Min, J.A., Hahn, C., & Kim, D. J. (2013). Developmental and validation of a smartphone addiction scale (SAS). PLoS ONE, 8(2), 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0056936

Lau, J. T. F., Gross, D. L., Wu, A. M. S., Cheng, K. man, & Lau, M. M. C. (2017). Incidence and predictive factors of Internet addiction among Chinese secondary school students in Hong Kong: a longitudinal study. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 52(6), 657–667. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00127-017-1356-2

Lee, S.-Y., Kim, M. S., & Lee, H. K. (2019). Prevention Strategies and Interventions for Internet Use Disorders Due to Addictive Behaviors Based on an Integrative Conceptual Model. Current Addiction Reports, 6(3), 303–312. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40429-019-00265-z

Lee, S. Y., Park, E. C., Han, K. T., Kim, S. J., Chun, S. Y., & Park, S. (2016). The association of level of internet use with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in South Korean adolescents: A focus on family structure and household economic status. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 61(4), 243–251. https://doi.org/10.1177/0706743716635550

Lim, S. A., & You, S. (2018). Effect of parental negligence on mobile phone dependency among vulnerable social groups: Mediating effect of peer attachment. Psychological Reports, 0(0), 1-13. doi: 0033294118799339.

Mun SY, Lee BS. Effects of an integrated Internet addiction prevention program on elementary students’ self-regulation and Internet addiction. J Korean Acad Nurs. 2015;45(2):251–61.

Neophytou, E., Manwell, L. A., & Eikelboom, R. (2019). Effects of Excessive Screen Time on Neurodevelopment, Learning, Memory, Mental Health, and Neurodegeneration: a Scoping Review. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-019-00182-2

Park, Hye-seon & Hyoung-mo Kim. (2016). The effetct of children's smartphone addiction on agression : focussing on moderating effect of parenting style. Journal of the Korea Contents Association, 16(3), 498-511.

Park, Cheol & Park, Ye Rang (2014) The Conceptual Model on Smart Phone Addiction among Early Childhood, International Journal of Social Science and Humanity, 4(2) 147-150. DOI: 10.7763/IJSSH.2014.V4.336.

Park, M. H., Park, S., Jung, K. I., Kim, J. I., Cho, S. C., & Kim, B. N. (2018). Moderating effects of depressive symptoms on the relationship between problematic use of the Internet and sleep problems in Korean adolescents. BMC Psychiatry, 18(1), 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-018-1865-x

Redayani, P. (2010) ‘Gangguan Cemas Menyeluruh’, in Elvira, S. D. and Hadisukanto, G. (eds) Buku Ajar Psikiatri. Jakarta: Badan Penerbit FKUI, pp. 230–234.

Rhodes A. Screen time and kids: what’s happening in our homes? Detailed report. Melbourne (VIC): The Royal Children’s Hospital Melbourne; 2017.

Rideout, V.The commonsense census: media use by kids age zero to eight. San Francisco (CA): Common Sense Media; 2017.

Rosenberg, K. P. and Feder, L. C. (2014) ‘An Introduction to Behavioral Addictions’, in Rosenberg, K. P. and Feder, L. C. (eds) Behavioral Addictions Criteria, Evidence, and Treatment. London: Elsevier Inc., pp. 1–18.

Sadock, B. J., Ruiz, P. and Sadock, V. A. (2015) Kaplan and Sadock’s Synopsis of Psychiatry – Behavioral Sciences/Clinical Psychiatry. 11th ed. Lippincot William & Wilkins.

Santrock, J.W. (2012). Life-Span Development : Perkembangan Masa Hidup. Jakarta: Erlangga

Scott, D. A., Valley, B., & Simecka, B. A. (2017). Mental Health Concerns in the Digital Age. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 15(3), 604–613. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-016-9684-0

Selviani, W., & Solicha. (2019). Prediktor adiksi smartphone pada remaja di DKI Jakarta. Universitas Islam Negeri Syarif Hidayatullah, Jakarta.

Sinkkonen, H., Puhakka, H., & Meriläinen, M. (2014). Internet use and addiction among Finnish adolescents (15–19 years). Journal of Adolescence, 37(2), 123-131. doi: 10.1016/j. adolescence.2013.11.008.

Sohn, S., Rees, P., Wildridge, B., Kalk, N. J., & Carter, B. (2019). Correction to: Prevalence of problematic smartphone usage and associated mental health outcomes amongst children and young people: A systematic review, meta-analysis and GRADE of the evidence (BMC Psychiatry (2019) 19 (356) DOI: 10.1186/s12888-019-2350-x). BMC Psychiatry, 19(1), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-019-2393-z

Stahl, S. M. (2013) Stahl’s Essential Psychopharmacology Neuroscientific Basis and Practical Application. 4th edn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Stoltz, S., Londen, M., Dekovic, M., Prinzie, P., Castro, B., & Lochman, J. (2013). Simultaneously testing parenting and social cognitions in children at-risk for aggressive behavior problems: Gender differences and ethnic similarities. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 22(7), 922-931. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10826-012-9651-8.

Straker L, Abbott R, Collins R, Campbell A. Evidence-based guidelines for wise use of electronic games by children. Ergonomics 2014;57:47189.

Tariq, K., Tariq, R., Ayesha, A., Hussain, A., & Shahid, M. (2019). Effects of smartphone usage on psychological wellbeing of school going children in Lahore, Pakistan. Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association, 69(7), 955–958.

Twenge, J. M., & Campbell, W. K. (2018). Associations between screen time and lower psychological well-being among children and adolescents: Evidence from a population-based study. Preventive Medicine Reports, 12(September), 271–283. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmedr.2018.10.003

Unantenne N. Mobile device usage among young kids: a Southeast Asia study. Singapore: The Asian Parent and Samsung Kids Time; 2014.

Van Deursen, A. J. A. M., Bolle, C. L., Hegner, S.M., & Kommers, P. A. M. (2015). Modelling habitual and addictive smartphone behaviour. The role of smartphone usage types, emotional intelligence, social stress, self-regulation, age, and gender. Computers in Human Behavior, 45, 411-420. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2014.12.039

Walther B,Hanewinkel R,Morgenstern M. Effects of a brief school based media literacy intervention on digital media use in adolescents: cluster randomized controlled trial. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking. 2014;17(9):616–23. This is one of the largest and most robust empirical studies of prevention conducted outside of East Asia.

Wang, P., Zhao, M., Wang, X., Xie, X., Wang, Y., Lei, L. I. (2017) Peer relationship and adolescent smartphone addiction: The mediating role of self-esteem and Abi-Jaoude, E., Naylor, K. T., & Pignatiello, A. (2020). Smartphones, social media use and youth mental health. Cmaj, 192(6), E136–E141. https://doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.190434

Alt, D., & Boniel-Nissim, M. (2018). Parent–Adolescent communication and problematic internet use: The mediating role of fear of missing out (FoMO). Journal of Family Issues, 39(13), 33913409. doi: 10.1177/0192513X18783493.

Bae, S. M. (2015). The relationships between perceived parenting style, learning motivation, friendship satisfaction, and the addictive use of smartphones with elementary school students of South Korea: Using multivariate latent growth modeling. School Psychology International, 36(5), 513–531. doi:10. 1177/0143034315604017.

Bottino, S.M.B., Bottino, C.M.C., Regina, C.G., Correia, A.V.L. & Ribeiro, W.S. (2015). Cyberbullying and adolescent mental health: Systematic review. Cad. Saúde Pública, 31(3): 463-475. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0102-311X000361 14.

Brooks, R. (2012). Student-parents and higher education: a cross-national comparison. Journal of Education Policy, 27 (3), 423439. https://doi.org/10.1080/02680939.2011. 613598.

Chen, L., Yan, Z., Tang, W., Yang, F., Xie, X., & He, J. (2016) Mobile phone addiction levels and negative emotions among Chinese young adults: The mediating role of interpersonal problems. Computers in Human Behavior, 34, 49-57. https://doi.org/10/1016/j.chb.2014.01.024

D’Arienzo, M. C., Boursier, V., & Griffiths, M. D. (2019). Addiction to Social Media and Attachment Styles: A Systematic Literature Review. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 17(4), 1094–1118. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-019-00082-5

Elhai, J. D., Dvorak, R. D., Levine, J. C. and Hall, B. J. (2016) ‘Problematic smartphone use: A conceptual overview and systematic review of relations with anxiety and depression psychopathology’, Journal of Affective Disorders. Elsevier.

Fenton, M. C., Aivadyan, C. and Hasin, D. (2013) ‘Epidemiology of Addiction’, in Miller, P. (ed.) Principles of Addiction, Comprehensive Addictive Behaviors and Disorders. First Edit. London: Elsevier Inc., pp. 23–40.

Goleman, D. (2014). Emotional Intelligence. Jakarta: Gramedia..

Gugliandolo, M. C., Costa, S., Kuss, D. J., Cuzzocrea, F., & Verrastro, V. (2019). Technological Addiction in Adolescents: the Interplay Between Parenting and Psychological Basic Needs. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-019-00156-4

Gunarsa, S. (2006). Psikologi Perkembangan Anak dan Dewasa. Jakarta: Gunung Mulia

Herman, K. M., Hopman, W. M., & Sabiston, C. M. (2015). Physical activity, screen time and self-rated health and mental health in Canadian adolescents. Preventive Medicine, 73, 112–116. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2015.01.030

Hinduja, S. & Patchin, J. W. (2010). Bullying, Cyberbullying, and Suicide. Archives of Suicide Research, 14(3), 206-221.

Husada, A.K. (2013). Hubungan Pola Asuh Demokratis dan Kecerdasan Emosional Dengan perilaku Prososial Pada Remaja. Jurnal Psikologi Indonesia Vol.2 No.3.

Kemendikbud. 2016. Seri Pendidikan Orang Tua: Mendidik Anak di Era Digital. Jakarta : Kementrian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan.

Kim, Y. J., Jang, H. M., Lee, Y., Lee, D., & Kim, D. J. (2018). Effects of internet and Smartphone addictions on depression and anxiety based on propensity score matching analysis. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 15(5), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15050859

Kwon, M., Lee, J. Y., Won, W.Y., Park, J. W., Min, J.A., Hahn, C., & Kim, D. J. (2013). Developmental and validation of a smartphone addiction scale (SAS). PLoS ONE, 8(2), 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0056936

Lau, J. T. F., Gross, D. L., Wu, A. M. S., Cheng, K. man, & Lau, M. M. C. (2017). Incidence and predictive factors of Internet addiction among Chinese secondary school students in Hong Kong: a longitudinal study. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 52(6), 657–667. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00127-017-1356-2

Lee, S.-Y., Kim, M. S., & Lee, H. K. (2019). Prevention Strategies and Interventions for Internet Use Disorders Due to Addictive Behaviors Based on an Integrative Conceptual Model. Current Addiction Reports, 6(3), 303–312. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40429-019-00265-z

Lee, S. Y., Park, E. C., Han, K. T., Kim, S. J., Chun, S. Y., & Park, S. (2016). The association of level of internet use with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in South Korean adolescents: A focus on family structure and household economic status. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 61(4), 243–251. https://doi.org/10.1177/0706743716635550

Lim, S. A., & You, S. (2018). Effect of parental negligence on mobile phone dependency among vulnerable social groups: Mediating effect of peer attachment. Psychological Reports, 0(0), 1-13. doi: 0033294118799339.

Mun SY, Lee BS. Effects of an integrated Internet addiction prevention program on elementary students’ self-regulation and Internet addiction. J Korean Acad Nurs. 2015;45(2):251–61.

Neophytou, E., Manwell, L. A., & Eikelboom, R. (2019). Effects of Excessive Screen Time on Neurodevelopment, Learning, Memory, Mental Health, and Neurodegeneration: a Scoping Review. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-019-00182-2

Park, Hye-seon & Hyoung-mo Kim. (2016). The effetct of children's smartphone addiction on agression : focussing on moderating effect of parenting style. Journal of the Korea Contents Association, 16(3), 498-511.

Park, Cheol & Park, Ye Rang (2014) The Conceptual Model on Smart Phone Addiction among Early Childhood, International Journal of Social Science and Humanity, 4(2) 147-150. DOI: 10.7763/IJSSH.2014.V4.336.

Park, M. H., Park, S., Jung, K. I., Kim, J. I., Cho, S. C., & Kim, B. N. (2018). Moderating effects of depressive symptoms on the relationship between problematic use of the Internet and sleep problems in Korean adolescents. BMC Psychiatry, 18(1), 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-018-1865-x

Redayani, P. (2010) ‘Gangguan Cemas Menyeluruh’, in Elvira, S. D. and Hadisukanto, G. (eds) Buku Ajar Psikiatri. Jakarta: Badan Penerbit FKUI, pp. 230–234.

Rhodes A. Screen time and kids: what’s happening in our homes? Detailed report. Melbourne (VIC): The Royal Children’s Hospital Melbourne; 2017.

Rideout, V.The commonsense census: media use by kids age zero to eight. San Francisco (CA): Common Sense Media; 2017.

Rosenberg, K. P. and Feder, L. C. (2014) ‘An Introduction to Behavioral Addictions’, in Rosenberg, K. P. and Feder, L. C. (eds) Behavioral Addictions Criteria, Evidence, and Treatment. London: Elsevier Inc., pp. 1–18.

Sadock, B. J., Ruiz, P. and Sadock, V. A. (2015) Kaplan and Sadock’s Synopsis of Psychiatry – Behavioral Sciences/Clinical Psychiatry. 11th ed. Lippincot William & Wilkins.

Santrock, J.W. (2012). Life-Span Development : Perkembangan Masa Hidup. Jakarta: Erlangga

Scott, D. A., Valley, B., & Simecka, B. A. (2017). Mental Health Concerns in the Digital Age. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 15(3), 604–613. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-016-9684-0

Selviani, W., & Solicha. (2019). Prediktor adiksi smartphone pada remaja di DKI Jakarta. Universitas Islam Negeri Syarif Hidayatullah, Jakarta.

Sinkkonen, H., Puhakka, H., & Meriläinen, M. (2014). Internet use and addiction among Finnish adolescents (15–19 years). Journal of Adolescence, 37(2), 123-131. doi: 10.1016/j. adolescence.2013.11.008.

Sohn, S., Rees, P., Wildridge, B., Kalk, N. J., & Carter, B. (2019). Correction to: Prevalence of problematic smartphone usage and associated mental health outcomes amongst children and young people: A systematic review, meta-analysis and GRADE of the evidence (BMC Psychiatry (2019) 19 (356) DOI: 10.1186/s12888-019-2350-x). BMC Psychiatry, 19(1), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-019-2393-z

Stahl, S. M. (2013) Stahl’s Essential Psychopharmacology Neuroscientific Basis and Practical Application. 4th edn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Stoltz, S., Londen, M., Dekovic, M., Prinzie, P., Castro, B., & Lochman, J. (2013). Simultaneously testing parenting and social cognitions in children at-risk for aggressive behavior problems: Gender differences and ethnic similarities. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 22(7), 922-931. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10826-012-9651-8.

Straker L, Abbott R, Collins R, Campbell A. Evidence-based guidelines for wise use of electronic games by children. Ergonomics 2014;57:47189.

Tariq, K., Tariq, R., Ayesha, A., Hussain, A., & Shahid, M. (2019). Effects of smartphone usage on psychological wellbeing of school going children in Lahore, Pakistan. Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association, 69(7), 955–958.

Twenge, J. M., & Campbell, W. K. (2018). Associations between screen time and lower psychological well-being among children and adolescents: Evidence from a population-based study. Preventive Medicine Reports, 12(September), 271–283. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmedr.2018.10.003

Unantenne N. Mobile device usage among young kids: a Southeast Asia study. Singapore: The Asian Parent and Samsung Kids Time; 2014.

Van Deursen, A. J. A. M., Bolle, C. L., Hegner, S.M., & Kommers, P. A. M. (2015). Modelling habitual and addictive smartphone behaviour. The role of smartphone usage types, emotional intelligence, social stress, self-regulation, age, and gender. Computers in Human Behavior, 45, 411-420. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2014.12.039

Walther B,Hanewinkel R,Morgenstern M. Effects of a brief school based media literacy intervention on digital media use in adolescents: cluster randomized controlled trial. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking. 2014;17(9):616–23. This is one of the largest and most robust empirical studies of prevention conducted outside of East Asia.

Wang, P., Zhao, M., Wang, X., Xie, X., Wang, Y., Lei, L. I. (2017) Peer relationship and adolescent smartphone addiction: The mediating role of self-esteem and the moderating role of the need to belong, 6(59), 708-717. https://doi.org/10.1556/2006.6.2017.079.

Zou, Y., Xia, N., Zou, Y., Chen, Z., & Wen, Y. (2019). Smartphone addiction may be associated with adolescent hypertension: A cross-sectional study among junior school students in China. BMC Pediatrics, 19(1), 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12887-019-1699-9

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Published

2020-06-21

How to Cite

Amalia, R. F., & Hamid, A. Y. S. (2020). Smartphone Addiction, Children’s Mental Health, and the Role of Parenting. Jurnal Ilmu Keperawatan Jiwa, 3(2), 221–240. https://doi.org/10.32584/jikj.v3i2.588

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